Quem Dantes?

Quem dantes

Michelangelo placed him in heaven in his “Last Judgment”; Sandro Botticelli recreated the circles of hell created by his poetic imagination; and Hieronymus Bosch, William Blake, and Gustave Doré imagined his infernal visions in brilliant works of art. Even today, when the theology and politics of late medieval Florence seem so remote, Dante Alighieri’s masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, still fascinates and inspires readers the world over.

The former are souls forced to push boulders in opposite directions and insult any others they crash into. Their sins were hoarding (the greedy) or the squandering of money (the prodigal); among them are several men of the church whose image is tarnished by their sin. The wrathful, meanwhile, are mired in the swampy waters of the River Styx, the wrathful viciously fighting each other.

Dante’s autobiographical writing furnishes historians with clues as to the identity of the woman who would become one of the most famous muses in literature. On May 1, Florence celebrated the arrival of spring with feasts and music throughout the city. Men and women celebrated separately, but children did not. And so, in 1274, Dante saw Beatrice for the first time at such a party, wearing “a subdued and crimson dress.”

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Treachery is punished at the very depths of Hell in the ninth circle. Traitors are punished in a frozen lake produced by the icy wind emanating from Lucifer’s wings. From here, Virgil leads Dante to the lowest part of Hell, where they behold “the emperor of the kingdom dolorous”—Lucifer himself, who is trapped in ice from the waist down (canto XXXIV). “O, what a marvel it appeared to me, / When I beheld three faces on his head!” Dante exclaims in horror, watching Lucifer’s three mouths gnaw on Judas Iscariot, betrayer of Jesus, and the chief assassins of Julius Caesar, Brutus, and Cassius: “With six eyes did [Lucifer] weep, and down three chins / Trickled the tear-drops and the bloody drivel.”

Dante’s construction of the afterlife follows the cosmology developed by the second- century Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy. The entrance to Hell is placed in the land-filled northern hemisphere, under the city of Jerusalem, while the mountain of Purgatory rises in the water-filled southern hemisphere opposite. The second of the otherworldly realms is, in turn, surmounted by the nine spheres of Paradise. Although the structure of Dante’s Hell bears little resemblance to physical geography, the medieval mind conceived of it as a real place: Barren plains, caverns, swamps, cliffs and precipices, tongues of flame and dead waters give life to landscapes both terrifying and symbolic.

Florentine family

The poet conceived the idea of The Divine Comedy at some point during this long period of exile. His experience of politics and banishment had shown him a chaotic, violent, and corrupt society, where the emperor took no interest in Italy, and the pope pursued temporal rather than spiritual power. Dante imagined a journey through the three kingdoms of the afterlife, where he intended to explore the suffering of hell, the repentance of purgatory, and the ascent toward God in paradise so as to show to humanity the way that had been lost.

Love and family politics, however, did not necessarily coincide. By 1277, when Dante was about 12, his family arranged a marriage for him with Gemma Donati, the daughter of an influential Florentine family. Beatrice later married a wealthy Florentine banker before dying in her mid-20s in 1290, possibly in childbirth. Her demise seems to have partly inspired the composition of the Vita nuova in the following years. A blend of lyric poetry with prose commentaries, the Vita nuova touches on his love for Beatrice, and ends with a pledge: “that I shall yet write concerning her what hath not before been written of anyone.”

Crimes and punishments

Crimes and punishments

Compared with many other figures of his time, there is considerable information about Dante available to historians. He offers extensive autobiographical details in his works and, because of his political activity—which later led to his downfall and forced him into exile—he was a much documented figure during his lifetime. Not all of it is flattering: According to sources, Dante was quick-tempered. It is said, for example, that he would fly into a rage against anyone who spoke ill of his faction, the pro-papal Guelphs. Historical records show that as a young man Dante had fought for the Guelphs at the 1289 Battle of Campaldino, in which they had defeated their regional enemies, known as the Ghibellines.

In naming his lifework Comedy, Dante employs an understanding of the word that means a narrative with a happy ending, unrelated to humor. Although it recounts an actual physical journey, The Divine Comedy is also an allegory of the soul’s progress through sin (hell), penitence (purgatory), and redemption (paradise), the last being the joyful ending promised in the title. 

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Durante Alighieri was born in Florence in May 1265, under the astrological sign of Gemini, a detail he mentions in the Paradiso. He never used his official name Durante, however. According to 14th-century chronicler Filippo Villani, he preferred the diminutive Dante. Alighiero di Bellincione, his father, was a businessman and moneylender, and Bella, his mother, a member of the influential Abati family. She died when Dante was a child, and Alighiero married a woman with whom he had already fathered at least one child. Although the poet’s parents never appear in his works, Dante mentions in the Paradiso an ancestor, Cacciaguida, said to have been knighted by the 12th-century king Conrad III during the Crusades.

To the poet’s astonishment, Virgil is able to pass down below Lucifer. Dante follows, and the pair climb down the devil’s legs where they find a channel to the center of the earth that will lead them out of Hell to Mount Purgatory. It is there that Dante will finally be reunited with Beatrice in Purgatorio. Emerging on the other side of the world, Dante’s journey through the underworld, and the Inferno, has come to an end before the dawn on Easter Sunday: “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars.”

The first, and highest, circle in hell is Limbo, whose residents are there through no fault of their own, so are not punished. Limbo is reserved for the unbaptized and the virtuous pre-Christian pagans, such as Virgil himself, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. From there, the eight remaining circles descend, filled with the damned and the punished, each one corresponding to a sin: Lust, Gluttony, Greed and Waste, Wrath, Heresy, Violence, and Fraud. The ninth circle is reserved for Treachery, and below this is the center of Hell itself, where the devil resides in the form of a three-headed beast.

The Count of Monte Cristo

Dante died in Ravenna 1321 in his mid-50s, without ever returning to his beloved Florence. The Divine Comedy found its first major champion in another Florentine writer, Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375). The Divine Comedy crowns not just Italian literature but Western culture as a whole, and its impact on English literature is colossal. Centuries after its publication, it was a principal inspiration for English poet John Milton’s epic 1667 work, Paradise Lost. In the 18th century Dante was placed on a par with Homer. The English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge described Dante’s work as “a total impression of infinity,” and the 20th-century author James Joyce declared: “I love Dante almost as much as the Bible. He is my spiritual food.”

The second circle (described in canto V) is guarded by the snarling Minos. The ancient king of Crete known for his marked sense of justice has become a demon charged with judging the sins of the damned and decreeing where they belong in Hell. When delivering his sentence, Minos wraps his tail around himself a number of times corresponding to the circle to which the soul is doomed. 

Among them, Dante notices two souls “together coming, and who seem so light before the wind.” They are Paolo Malatesta and Francesca da Rimini, famous lovers killed by Francesca’s jealous husband. Francesca’s story of suffering troubles Dante so much that he cries tears of pity before fainting.

Infinite inspiration

While the “shades” or souls congregate in huge throngs, not all are faceless: Dante presents individuals from his own life, engaging them in often gossipy conversation. Among the slothful in canto III, Dante glimpses ”the shade of him / Who made through cowardice the great refusal,” identifying the figure as Pietro da Morrone, the hermit monk who was elected pope in 1294 with the name Celestine V. After a lifetime spent in passivity, the pope was a victim of plots that led him to give up the papacy. This choice was probably orchestrated by Cardinal Caetani, who succeeded him as Pope Boniface VIII and was secretly a supporter of the Black Guelph faction that seized power in Florence in the year 1301, forcing Dante into exile.

Dante also introduced important innovations. While many of his predecessors portrayed hell as an indistinct, seething mass of souls, Dante adopted St. Thomas Aquinas’s ordering principle of sin. The nature and gravity of the crime designated each soul’s place in hell and the appropriate torments to which they are subjected to for all eternity.

The ruling party had split into the White Guelphs and the Black Guelphs. The former, with whom Dante was allied, defended more autonomy for the city, while the latter supported Pope Boniface VIII and his aim to rule over Tuscany. The Black Guelphs seized power in autumn 1301, and in January the next year, Dante—then in Rome—was sentenced to perpetual exile and, subsequently, to death. Unable to return to Florence, he spent many years living principally in Verona, finally settling in Ravenna.

Porque o inferno de Dante?

O inferno é formado por Nove Círculos, Três Vales, Dez Fossos e Quatro Esferas. Essa organização foi baseada na teoria medieval de que o universo era formado por círculos concêntricos. O inferno foi criado da queda de Lúcifer do Céu. ... O inferno torna-se mais profundo a cada círculo, pois os pecados são mais graves.

Quantos anos tem dantes FF?

DanteMais 15 linhas

Como Dante descreve o inferno?

De acordo com a descrição de Dante, o inferno consiste em nove círculos concêntricos que se afunilam conforme ficam mais profundos, até chegarem ao centro da Terra. Para qual deles você é enviado depende do pecado cometido, com círculos destinados aos glutões, hereges e fraudadores.

Quais são as obras de Dante?

La Divina Commedia - Purgatorio1993 A Divina Comédia - Paraíso1320 Dante Alighieri/Peças